The expulsion of the Communists from the Industrial and Commercial Workers Union in 1926 resulted in a great deal of dissatisfaction among the rank and file members of the I. C. U., which was crystallized in the formation of the African Federation of Trade Unions in 1928. The Federation was supported mainly by workers in the seconday industries; garment, furniture, laundries, etc. In 1928, it affiliated to the Red International of Labour Unions. Its programme set out to organize all workers, irrespective of colour or race, with the aim of uniting white, coloured, Indian and native workers for the united struggle against capitalism and Imperialism in South Africa. The difficulties to the realization of the goal are great. The bourgeoisie have erected a wall of prejudice between the white and the black workers which is difficult to overcome.
-Albert T. Nzula, "The Struggles of the Negro Toilers in South Africa", The Negro Worker, vol. V, nos. 2-3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 (1935).