F. Z. S. PEREGRINO
A Ghanian who had lived for approximately a decade in Rochester and Albany in the state of New York, F. Z. S. Peregrino founded a newspaper called the South African Spectator in Cape Town immediately upon his arrival in South Africa in 1900. Peregrino was the predecessor his compatriot, James Kweggyir Aggrey (1874-1927), who electrified New African intellectuals in the 1920s on his two visits from United States. Both of these West Africans had enormous impact among the New African intelligentsia because they fused New Negoism and New Africanism into an unparalleled degree. Although Aggrey is better known than Peregrino, the latter seems to have had a more lasting impact in South Africa. Coming to South Africa directly from the first Pan African Congress of 1900 in London, it is not surprising that his newspaper was the disseminator of the political philosophy of Pan Africanism in South Africa. In forming a Pan-African Society in 1901, he sought to achieve the following realizations, among others: "to secure to Africans and their descendants throughout the world their civil and political rights; to ameliorate to condition of our oppressed brethren in the Continents of Africa, America, and other parts of the world, by promoting efforts to secure effective legislation; to encourage our people in educational, industrial and commercial enterprises" (South African Spectator, February 23, 1901). Given this political and historical mission was the only prominent New African intellectual to realize the historical import of Ethiopianism, founded by Mangane Maake Mokone (1851-1930) in 1892. Whereas John Tengo Jabavu's Imvo Zabantsundu and John Dube's Ilanga lase Natal were hostile to this religio-political movent, and Walter Rubusana and Allan Kirkland Soga's Izwi Labantu was indifferent, South African Spectator gave ample coverage to its philosophical and ideological pespectives. It is because Peregrino viewed Ethiopianism, the secession of African churches from the hegemony of European churches, as part of the Pan African movement, that he was immediately able to grasp its significance for the greater black world. Hence Peregrino's enthusiasm for the transatlantic linkages between Ethiopianism and the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. It in this context that he sought to foster an awareness of the greatness of Edward Blyden among his new compatriots. There were other first achievements of South African Spectator within the New African intellectual circles. Peregrino was the first to write serious intellectual portraits of the New African intelligentsia such as Mokone, Kirkland Soga (Soga in turn sketched a portrait of Peregrino in Izwi Labantu), and those of New Negroes such as Levi Jenkins Coppins and A. Henry Attaway. With the demise of his newspaper, F. Z. S. Peregrino was the first to write a newspaper article about the momentous occasion of the founding of the ANC in Ilanga lase Natal (March 22, 1912), having attended the Conference as one of the invited observers. One debilitating factor in the intellectual and political practice of Peregrino in South Africa is in having imbibed the conservative political philosophy of Booker T. Washington. Despite this manifest shortcoming, he wrote important pamphlets about the political aspects of South African modernity: Life Among the Native and Coloured Miners of the Transvaal (Cape Town, 1915), The Political Parties and the Coloured Vote (Cape Town, 1915), His Majesty's Black Labourers: A Treatise on the Camp Life of the South African Native Labour Contigent (Cape Town, 1918).